1. «Strengthening domestic policy and institutions for international trade . . . «; The initial GATT of 1947 defined the basic principles that largely dominated world trade over the next forty years and which were to become the basis of the WTO.  There were 23 original members known as «contracting parties.» The GATT was supposed to be a member-centred organization, but it had a very small secretariat in Geneva, responsible for managing the agreement for members. The Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement covers all areas covered in most other U.S. bilateral trade agreements, such as trade in goods and services, intellectual property protection, public procurement, customs assessment, technical barriers to trade, health and plant health measures, trade and dispute resolution. In addition, the agreement addresses several new areas. One of them is the cross-border flow of data, which has become an important topic in the Internet age, where data is sent around the world by clicking on a computer mouse and stored in data servers that can be found anywhere. A third important new area is regulation of how SOEs can operate in the context of global competition so as not to have an unfair trade advantage over market-oriented firms.
This is the first agreement that addresses this issue in a substantial way. Unlike these sectors where formulas have been liberalized, footwear, textiles and clothing have been excluded from the Tokyo Round formula reductions. These sectors employ a relatively high number of unskilled workers, and U.S. firms generally find it difficult to compete with low-wage firms in these sectors. Moreover, these sectors have great political influence in a number of countries and, at the time, could have blocked the adoption of an agreement which they strongly rejected. As a result, not only were these sectors widely used in trade liberalization, but in 1974 some industrialized countries – including the United States, THE EU Member States, Canada and Norway – imposed the multifibre agreement, which reduced the volume of imported textiles and clothing. Starting with the Theodore Roosevelt government, the United States has become an important player in international trade, particularly with its neighboring territories in the Caribbean and Latin America. Today, the United States has become a leader in the free trade movement and supports groups such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (later the World Trade Organization).
[Citation required] New members must be approved by all WTO members. When a country requests membership, a working group will be set up to verify the country`s trade rules and regulations and their compliance with WTO rules. Candidates conclude bilateral market access agreements with each member who insists on this point and the results of these bilateral negotiations are implemented on the basis of the MFN. The United States and other members are calling for new applicants to comply with WTO rules and, when they have high trade barriers, significantly liberalize their markets based on their level of development.