Yandaboo Agreement

The agreement was signed on 24 February 1826 by General Sir Archibald Campbell on the British side and by the governor of Legaing Maha Min Hla Kyaw Htin of the Burmese side. It is with this treaty that British rule begins in Assam. It was a peace agreement between the British and Burmese in a Burmese village called yandaboo, near the capital Ava. More importantly, the burden of compensation would bankrupt the Royal Treasury for years. Compensation of one million pounds would have been considered a colossal sum, even in Europe at that time, and it became frightening when it was translated into Burmese kyat equivalents of 10 million. The cost of living of an average villager in Upper Burma in 1826 was one kyat per month. [2] The British asked and the Burmese agreed:[1][2] The Burmese had to stop interfering in the kingdom of Chachar and the hills of Jaintia. Ava`s court did not expect, and was not prepared to accept the total dismemberment of their Western empire and overwhelming punishment. But when the army was severely exhausted, the Burmese envoy, the Lord of Kawlin, replied that his government: the treaty imposed a heavy financial burden on the Burmese kingdom and in fact crippled it. The British conditions in the negotiations were strongly influenced by the high cost of living and money that the war had ensorized.

About 40,000 British and Indian troops were involved, of which 15,000 were killed. The cost of British India`s finances had been almost ruinous at around 13 million pounds. The costs of the war contributed to a severe economic crisis in India, which in 1833 had led the Bengali agency offices to bankruptcy and the British East India Company had cost its remaining privileges, including China`s commercial monopoly. [4] The British were not impressed: «The question is not how much you will yield to us, but how much we will give you back.» [7] In any event, after the partition of India in 1947, about 3 million East Bengals emigrated to India and in 1950 an estimated one million additional refugees entered West Bengal, particularly after the Barisal and Noakhali riots in 1950. «Migration has continued, particularly from eastern Pakistan to India, until the liberation of Bangladesh in 1971, both on a continuous basis and with highs in times of particular local unrest, such as the riots in eastern Pakistan in 1964 and the India-Pakistan war in 1965, where an estimated 600,000 refugees left for India (wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Bengali_refugees). A significant percentage of refugees in Assam are believed to have settled in both the Barak Valley and the Brahmaputra Valley. Most people in the Brahmaputra Valley generally speak Assamese and different tribal languages and dialects such as Bodo, Tiwa and few other dialects. They have their own culture and habit. With the colonization of Bengali, the Assamers are always afraid and feel lost their cultural identity. We all know that Assam Agitation took place for about six years and, finally, the Assam (Memorandum of Settlement) agreement, signed between representatives of the Indian government and the leaders of the Assam movement, on August 15, 1985. «One of the clauses was that the government agreed to identify and deport all refugees and migrants after March 25, 1971» (wikipedia.org/wiki/Assam_Accord).

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